Psy

Psykedeelinen renessanssi orastaa tieteessä – miksi?

Tämä yleisluontoinen katsaus on kirjoitettu pyynnöstä Cortext-lehteen ja julkaistu sen numerossa 2/2017

 

Psykedeelinen renessanssi orastaa tieteessä

Samuli Kangaslampi 

”Taikasienistä ihmelääke masennuksen hoitoon?”1, ”LSD palauttaa aivot samanlaiseen tilaan kuin vauvana”2, ”Hannu söi huumesieniä parantumattoman syövän aiheuttamaan shokkiin”3 – Psykedeelit ovat viime aikoina näkyneet suomalaisessakin mediassa. Aiheeseen liittyvän asenne- ja mediailmapiirin muutoksen ohella taustalla vaikuttaa myös psykedeelien nouseminen uudelleen vakavasti otettavan tieteellisen tutkimuksen kohteiksi, sekä perustutkimuksessa että mahdollisten kliinisten sovellusten osalta. Miten tiede näkee psykedeelit, ja mistä syistä niitä tutkitaan?

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Exporting data from SPSS to Mplus – a simple step-by-step guide

Exporting data from SPSS (23) to Mplus (7.3) – a simple step-by-step guide

Exporting data from SPSS to Mplus is theoretically a simple process, but can still be a little more complicated than it should be. Various instructions exist all over the Web, but many of them forgo a couple of details that may not be obvious to novices. Here’s my reasonably fool-proof step-by-step guide.

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“Dear Dr. S …” – Invitations from predatory publishers

An interesting side effect of having published an article in a widely indexed open access journal has been the influx of invitations to publish articles/reviews/comments/anything at all or to review research articles in a variety of journals with names ranging from Medical Sciences to the Austin Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences. In a similar vein, I have been invited to appear as a distinguised speaker at, e.g., the annual 4th International Conference and Exhibition on Immunology and the International Conference on Brain Disorders and Therapeutics.

Publishing a single study protocol has clearly made me a veritable superstar of science, as my contribution is urgently needed at all sorts of events and publications barely even related to my field of study. How flattering! What’s more, these invitations have addressed me variously as “Doctor Kangaslampi”, “Dr. Samuli Kangaslampi” and even “Dr S.”, though my PhD is still a few years off. An understandable confusion looking at my long list of publications and academic work over many years!

These invitations are, of course, part of an unfortunate trend of elaborate scams circulating in the academia.

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Worksheet for examining mediator effects

Mediating/intervening variable effects can be examined and demonstrated in a variety of ways in psychological research. One approach is the so-called difference in coefficients method, where the significance of the difference between the direct path from X to Y with no mediated path via M and the direct path from X to Y when a mediated path (X->M->Y) exists is tested. The attached simple Excel worksheet provides an easy way to do this using the Freedman-Schatzkin approach to estimating the standard error of the difference. The sources used are detailed in the worksheet.

As mentioned, there are many other ways to examine mediator effects, so only use this if you know what you’re doing. This method appears to be superior to, e.g., the old Baron & Kenny steps approach, but personally, I’d recommend boostrapping for most uses.

Difference in coefficients t-test for mediating variable effect

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