Tag: well-being

AotD: Family-, Media-, and School-Related Risk Factors of Video Game Addiction

Article of the Day:

Family-, Media-, and School-Related Risk Factors of Video Game Addiction: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

by Rehbein, F., & Baier, D. (2013)

(Journal of Media Psychology, 25(3), 118-128.  DOI: 10.1027/1864-1105/a000093)

 

Background & Research

The effects of video games on children and youngsters as well as full-on video game addiction are topics that receive a fair bit of attention in the general media. As the importance of interactive screen media continues to grow in our societies, problematic use of video games has also been increasingly studied, and estimates of video game addiction (GA) range from 0,6 % (Norway) to 8.5 % (USA) among adolescents.

In studies with cross-sectional designs, male gender, higher impulsiveness, higher acceptance of violence, lower empathy, emotional stability and attractiveness, inferior social skills, higher negative valence and stress levels have been identified as person-based risk correlates for GA.

As regards risk correlates more directly related to the games played, more time spent gaming overall has been found to be a risk factor, but other factors matter too. Gaming online seems to have more of an association with GA than offline gaming, and so does gaming for reasons of status, escape or outside demands. Playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG) also seems more linked to GA than playing other game types.

Several risk correlates relating to the social environment have been found to be relevant, too. These include lack of success in real life, low parental support, elevated use of video games by parents, divorce or separation of parents and school-related behavioral and educational problems. Continue Reading…

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AotD: Optimism Is Universal

Article of the Day:

Optimism Is Universal: Exploring the Presence and Benefits of Optimism in a Representative Sample of the World

by Gallagher, M. W., Lopez, S. J., & Pressman, S. D. (2013)

(Journal of Personality, 81(5). 429-440.  DOI: 10.1111/jopy.12026)

 

Background & Research

Recent theories of and studies on optimism tend to agree that  optimism is an adaptive psychological resource and provides overall benefits for individuals, rather than being a damaging delusion as was earlier thought by some philosophers and psychologists. While there are some indications that defensive pessimism may be adaptive and optimism maladaptive in some very specific circumstances, overall, numerous studies and meta-analyses have shown higher levels of optimism to be  linked to improved psychological health, in particular subjective well-being, as well as subjective, and to a lesser extent objective, physical health.

However, as with so much psychological research, optimism and its effects have mainly been studied in industrialized, relatively wealthy nations. Are the results obtained in such studies then generalizable to the entire world? Is optimism a) widely present and b) adaptive in other parts of the world, where, e.g.,  economic outlooks may be more dire and life expectancy and other Quality of Life indicators are lower? Continue Reading…

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