Tag: health

AotD: Argentine tango dance compared to mindfulness meditation and a waiting-list control

Article of the Day:

Argentine tango dance compared to mindfulness meditation and a waiting-list control:

A randomised trial for treating depression

by Pinniger, R., Brown, R.F., Thorsteinsson, E.B., & McKinley, P. (2012).

(Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 20, 377-384. DOI: 10.1016/j.ctim.2012.07.003)

Background & Research

Depression and anxiety problems are massive public health issues, not to mention sources of great suffering for millions of people worldwide. In addition to the current standard approach of medication and/or, more rarely, psychotherapy, a great number of somewhat more alternative treatments/forms of help have been proposed and developed for depression and anxiety. Programs or treatments that would be easy to implement, preferably in group settings, inclusive, and cost-effective garner great interest for practical reasons.

Physical activity overall has been found to significantly alleviate depressive symptoms and psychological distress. This is especially true for recreational physical activity, as opposed to specific rehabilitation exercises. Dance combines physical activity with other features found to promote mental well-being, including expressive characteristics, music and (in the case of pair/group dancing) a strong social and physical connection to another person. Not surprisingly, studies have reported dance “therapies” to be at least an effective adjunct to other forms of therapy for depression and anxiety.

Argentinian-style tango dancing in particular adds to the equation requirements for greater awareness of one’s own body and that of the partner, as well as awareness of the current experience in the here and now overall, trust in the partner, and significant skills acquisition over time. A number of physical and social benefits from tango dancing have already been demonstrated (e.g., improved balance, self-esteem, quality of life, coordination, walking speed). Further, despite its generally melancholic contents, tango music has been shown to generate positive emotions, and combined with partnered dancing to improve a person’s emotional state.

In light of these features of tango music and dancing, the study this article reports on examined the possibility that tango dancing could be employed as a mindfulness-based treatment for affective symptoms. Other more clearly mindfulness-based interventions, such as Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy, have previously been shown to reduce symptom severity in, e.g., depression and pain, in several studies. Out of particular mindfulness activities, meditation has repeatedly been found to improve psychological well-being in many ways. The authors propose that tango dancing shares attributes with such mindfulness promoting approaches, and could represent a novel form of group intervention combining elements of physical activity and mindfulness. Continue Reading…

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AotD: Psychedelics and Mental Health: A Population Study

Article of the Day:

Psychedelics and Mental Health: A Population Study

by Krebs, T. S., & Johansen, P-Ø. (2013)

(PLoS ONE, 8(8), e63972. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0063972)

Background

Psychedelic substances, such as psilocybin-containing mushrooms, DMT-containing brews (ayahuasca), mescaline-containing cacti, ibogaine-containing roots and seeds with LSA, have been used for religious, shamanistic, divination and healing purposes by various cultures for thousands of years. Since the 1960s especially, the use of psychedelics, most commonly lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25), psilocybin and mescaline, has also been relatively widespread in the “Western” world for various purposes, including recreational, spiritual and religious uses.

Much research into the potential therapeutic uses of (some) psychedelics was carried out in the 1950s and 1960s, but due to political, legislative and other reasons, a long hiatus followed. In recent years, starting with DMT studies in the 1990s, and over the last 5-10 years in particular, there has been increasing renewed interest in such uses. In light of this renewed interest, research over the safety of these substances appears of great importance.

It is known that the “classic” serotonergic psychedelics, that is, LSD, psilocybin and mescaline, are physically very safe substances, non-addictive, and do not lead to violence or other major social problems in the way some psychoactive substances do. When considering the possible risks of these substances, the main concern has focused on potential mental health effects, in particular on possible links to long-term psychotic, phobic or PTSD-like symptoms. Psychedelics can indeed elicit very intense experiences in their users, often positive and even ecstatic or rapturous but sometimes negative and terrifying. In light of these extreme effects, and some (though limited) similarities in states produced by psychedelic use and those experienced during mental illness, it is not surprising that many have wondered about the connections between psychedelic use and mental health, and some case reports of long-term mental problems following psychedelic use exist.

Continue Reading…

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AotD: Family-, Media-, and School-Related Risk Factors of Video Game Addiction

Article of the Day:

Family-, Media-, and School-Related Risk Factors of Video Game Addiction: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

by Rehbein, F., & Baier, D. (2013)

(Journal of Media Psychology, 25(3), 118-128.  DOI: 10.1027/1864-1105/a000093)

 

Background & Research

The effects of video games on children and youngsters as well as full-on video game addiction are topics that receive a fair bit of attention in the general media. As the importance of interactive screen media continues to grow in our societies, problematic use of video games has also been increasingly studied, and estimates of video game addiction (GA) range from 0,6 % (Norway) to 8.5 % (USA) among adolescents.

In studies with cross-sectional designs, male gender, higher impulsiveness, higher acceptance of violence, lower empathy, emotional stability and attractiveness, inferior social skills, higher negative valence and stress levels have been identified as person-based risk correlates for GA.

As regards risk correlates more directly related to the games played, more time spent gaming overall has been found to be a risk factor, but other factors matter too. Gaming online seems to have more of an association with GA than offline gaming, and so does gaming for reasons of status, escape or outside demands. Playing massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPG) also seems more linked to GA than playing other game types.

Several risk correlates relating to the social environment have been found to be relevant, too. These include lack of success in real life, low parental support, elevated use of video games by parents, divorce or separation of parents and school-related behavioral and educational problems. Continue Reading…

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AotD: Optimism Is Universal

Article of the Day:

Optimism Is Universal: Exploring the Presence and Benefits of Optimism in a Representative Sample of the World

by Gallagher, M. W., Lopez, S. J., & Pressman, S. D. (2013)

(Journal of Personality, 81(5). 429-440.  DOI: 10.1111/jopy.12026)

 

Background & Research

Recent theories of and studies on optimism tend to agree that  optimism is an adaptive psychological resource and provides overall benefits for individuals, rather than being a damaging delusion as was earlier thought by some philosophers and psychologists. While there are some indications that defensive pessimism may be adaptive and optimism maladaptive in some very specific circumstances, overall, numerous studies and meta-analyses have shown higher levels of optimism to be  linked to improved psychological health, in particular subjective well-being, as well as subjective, and to a lesser extent objective, physical health.

However, as with so much psychological research, optimism and its effects have mainly been studied in industrialized, relatively wealthy nations. Are the results obtained in such studies then generalizable to the entire world? Is optimism a) widely present and b) adaptive in other parts of the world, where, e.g.,  economic outlooks may be more dire and life expectancy and other Quality of Life indicators are lower? Continue Reading…

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